“Performance and kinetic modeling of Purolite C160 solid acid resin in the esterification of glycerol with acetic acid” / “Desempenho e modelo cinético da resina sólida ácida Purolite C160 na esterificação de glicerol com ácido acético”

Natália Cristina Dalibera, Vitor Pereira Barbosa, Guilherme Carmelo Ungar, Kelly Cristina Manhani, Giovanna Pastore Meneguetti, Lucilene Betega de Paiva, Silas Derenzo


The present study analyzes the performance of Purolite C160 as heterogeneous catalyst for the esterification reaction of glycerol with acetic acid to produce diacetin. The reactions were conducted in 220ml batches, varying the acetic acid/glycerol molar ratio (β) in 4, 5 and 6, with a catalyst/glycerol mass ratio of 23% at 90°C, 100°C and 110°C. The best result was obtained at 110oC with β of 6, with 95% conversion of glycerol and selectivity of monoacetin, diacetin and triacetin of 26%, 60% and 14%, respectively, after 150 minutes. A kinetic model was presented, and the reaction constants (ki) and the activation energies were obtained using interior point algorithm in software MATLAB. Different expressions of ki as a function of temperature were obtained for different values of β.


Purolite C160, diacetin, heterogeneous catalysis, esterification, kinetics

Full Text:



Hill J, Naelson E, Tilman D, Polasky S, Tiffany D (2006) Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 103: 11206-11210

Gebremariam SN, Marchetti JM (2018) Economics of biodiesel production: Review. Energy Conversion and Management 168: 74-84

Mota CJA, Silva CXA, Gonçalves VLC (2009) Gliceroquímica: novos produtos e processos a partir da glicerina de produção de biodiesel. Química Nova, 32, 3: 1-19

Ullmann (1989) Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley, Glycerol 5th ed. A-12: 477-489

Ferreira M, Cardozo L, Silva C, Sousa E (2014) Glycerol as additive for fuels - A review. Lat. Am. Appl. Res. 44, 1

Eze VC, Harvey AP (2018) Continuous reactive coupling of glycerol and acetone – A strategy for triglyceride transesterification and in-situ valorisation of glycerol by-product. Chemical Engineering Journal 347: 41-51

Cahyono R, Mufrodi Z, Hidayat A, Budiman A (2016) Acetylation of glycerol for triacetin production using Zr-natural zeolite catalyst. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 11, 8: 5194-5197

Rastegari H, Ghaziaskar H, Yalpani M (2015) Valorization of Biodiesel Derived Glycerol to Acetins by Continuous Esterification in Acetic Acid: Focusing on High Selectivity to Diacetin and Triacetin with No Byproducts. Eng. Chem. Res. 54, 13: 3279–3284

Rastegari H, Ghaziaskar H, Yalpani M, Shafiei A (2017) Development of a Continuous System Based on Azeotropic Reactive Distillation to Enhance Triacetin Selectivity in Glycerol Esterification with Acetic Acid. Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran

Kong P, Aroua M, Daud W, Lee H, Cognet P, Pérès Y (2016) Catalytic role of solid acid catalysts in glycerol acetylation for the production of bio-additives – a review. RSC Advances 6, 73: 68885-68905

Lópes F, Revilla L, Munilla M (1999) Glicerol, manual dos derivados da cana-de-açúcar: diversificação, matérias-primas, derivados do bagaço do melaço, outros derivados, resíduos, energia. ABIPTI 5, 4: 393-397

Satterfield CN (1991) Heterogeneous catalysis in industrial practice. 2nd edition, United States: N.p., Web

George SM (1995) Introduction: Heterogeneous catalysis. Chemical Reviews 3: 475-476

Bedogni G, Acevedo M, Aguzín F, Okulik N, Padró C (2017) Synthesis of bioadditives of fuels from biodiesel-derived glycerol by esterification with acetic acid on solid catalysts. Environmental Technology 3330: 1-12

Gonçalves V, Pinto B, Silva J, Mota C (2008) Acetylation of glycerol catalyzed by different solid acids. Catalysis Today 133-135: 673-677

Zhou L, Nguyen T, Adesina A (2012) The acetylation of glycerol over amberlyst-15: Kinetic and product distribution. Fuel Processing Technology 104: 310-318

Kale S, Armbruster U, Umbarkar S, Dongare M, Martin A (2013) Esterification of glycerol with acetic acid for improved production of triacetin using toluene as an entrainer. 10th Green Chemistry Conference: Barcelona, Spain

Setyaningsih L, Siddiq F, Pramezy A (2018) Esterification of glycerol with acetic acid over Lewatit catalyst. Islamic University of Indonesia, Indonesia

Hermida L, Abdullah AZ, Mohamed AR (2011) Synthesis of monoglyceride through glycerol esterification with lauric acid over propyl sulfonic acid post-synthesis functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst. Chem. Eng. J. 174: 668

Smith JM (1982) Chemical Engineering Kinetics, McGraw Hill International Book Co.

Setyaningsih L, Mutiara T, Chafidz A, Zulkania A, Andrianto MA, Farikha NL (2019) Kinetic modelling of esterification of glycerol with acetic acid catalyzed by lewatite, IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 543: 012008

Kulkarni RM, Pradima JB, Narula A, Saqline S, Anand D, Bhagyalakshmi C, Herle NR (2020) Kinetic studies on the synthesis of fuel additives from glycerol using CeO2–ZrO2 metal oxide catalyst, Biofuel Research Journal 25: 1100-1108

Okoye PU, Abdullah AZ, Hameed BH (2017) A review on recent developments and progress in the kinetics and deactivation of catalytic acetylation of glycerol—A byproduct of biodiesel, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 74: 387-401

MATLAB and Statistics Toolbox (2012) MathWorks – Hessian Output, Inc., Natick, Massachusetts, United States

Helfferich FG, (2014) Heterogeneous Catalysis. Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics 40, C: 273-308

Nascimento FP, Junior BBN, Cardoso LAM, Albuquerque LVT, Neto NMO (2018) An approach to the kinetics and thermodynamics of elementary chemical reactions using a stochastic model. Química Nova 41: 9 1678-7064

Piskulich ZA, Mesele OO, Thompson WH (2019) Activation energies and beyond. The Journal of Physical Chemestry 123: 7185-7194

Liao X, Zhu Y, Wang SG, Chen H, Li Y (2010) Theoretical elucidation of acetylating glycerol with acetic acid and acetic anhydride. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 94: 64-70

Milgrom P, Roberts J (1996) The LeChatelier principle, The American Economic Review 86: 1 173-179.

Khayoon MS, Triwahyono S, Hameed BH, Jalil AA (2014) Improved production of fuel oxygenates via glycerol acetylation with acetic acid. Chemical Engineering Journal 243: 473-484

Hasabnis A, Mahajani S (2010) Entrainer-based reactive distillation for esterification of glycerol with acetic acid. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 49: 19 9058-9067

Veluturla A, Archna N, Subba RD, Shetty SP (2017) Kinetic study of synthesis of bio-fuel additives from glycerol using a heteropolyacid. Resource-Efficient Technologies 3: 337-341

Nau R (n.d.) Linear Regression Models. Fuqua School of Business, Duke University, retrieved from accessed April 19th, 2021

Fogler SH (1999) Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, New Jersey: 69-98

Daley (2009) Error Propagation, Foothill College, Tutorial 10: 1-8, retrieved from accessed April 19th, 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv7n7-278


  • There are currently no refbacks.