Lágrimas artificiais no tratamento da doença do olho seco: uma revisão de literatura/ Artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye disease: a literature review

Rafaela Montenegro Aires Sampaio, Anyssa Brilhante Aires Montenegro, Claudia Roberta de Andrade

Abstract


A Doença do Olho Seco é uma enfermidade multifatorial, crônica, altamente prevalente. Ela pode ser classificada em dois subgrupos principais, o olho seco evaporativo e o olho seco causado por deficiência na produção do filme lacrimal. Apresenta desencadeantes ambientais, como baixa umidade e biológicos, como a Síndrome de Sjögren. Essa patologia pode causar diversas inconveniências na vida dos pacientes, como diminuição da produtividade no trabalho e dificuldade na realização de tarefas diárias, como ler, utilizar o computador e dirigir. Por esses motivos, requer um tratamento capaz de aliviar os sintomas e proporcionar uma melhor qualidade de vida ao paciente. Nesse sentido, existem diversos tipos de tratamento, sendo a suplementação de lágrimas artificiais o mais utilizado. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão de literatura para avaliar as diversas substâncias utilizadas atualmente para compor esses colírios de lágrimas artificiais utilizados para tratar o olho seco. Métodos: análise de artigos em inglês, dos últimos cinco anos, encontrados na plataforma PubMed, utilizando os filtros “Epidemiology”, “Dry Eye Disease”, “Artificial Tears” e “Therapeutics”. Resultados e discussão: existe um amplo espectro de substâncias utilizadas como lágrimas artificiais, como carboximetilcelulose, hialuronato de sódio e colírios contendo substâncias lipídicas. Conclusão: as substâncias analisadas apresentavam diferentes mecanismos para tratar o olho seco, entre os principais estavam o aumento da produção de filme lacrimal, aumento da estabilidade do filme lacrimal e redução de danos causados à superfície ocular. Porém, tinham como objetivo em comum a satisfação do paciente, que estava diretamente associada à diminuição dos sintomas relacionados à síndrome do olho seco.


Keywords


“Epidemiology”, “Dry Eye Disease”, “Artificial Tears”, “Therapeutics”.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv7n7-024

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