Metric Quantitative from Components Logistic Frames Heifers and Levels Bread Flour or Corn Grain / Métrica Quantitativa de Componentes Logísticos Estruturas Novilhas e Níveis Farinha de Pão ou Grão de Milho

Aluisio Fernando Alves Ferreira, Cristian E. Toledo, João Carlos M. Nogueira

Abstract


Hypothesis from effects environmental can make provide options by utilization in scale one corn grain and bread flour illustrate different characteristics from behaviors in compare their performance in terms of prediction and variable selection in a simulation study, in relation a normal distributions to long times, we provide two basis empirical application in presents variables by gain.  We conduct a simulation study was compare the corn grain and bread flour, in terms by prediction and variable selection from frame size heifers in scale linear growing promoting two empirical similarities in yours differences. Thirty-six heifers, crossbreed ½ Gir x ½ Holstein, age 11 mouths, 102 kg (SD±15) were selected and assigned to 4 blocks based on parity and growled yield with 4 heifers in a block, and then the 4 heifers in a block were randomly allocated into 4 groups, and fed basal diets supplemented with different doses of bread flour at the doses of 0, 0,25, 0,5, 0,75 or 1 kg bread flour DM. Results, higher levels from bread flours [spilling energy], were higher interspersed elevate to effects associates positively for effect empty body weight after 30 days from consumers. Finally, bread flour was alternative viability for formation grow-fat animal and reduce value-maternal class economic costs in relation to corn grain.


Keywords


aliment, inbreeds, efficiency, diet, metabolism

References


AFRC – Agricultural and Food Research Council. A reap appraisal of the calcium and phosphorus requirements of sheep and cattle. 2th ed. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, vol. 61, pp. 573-612, 1991.

BACH, A.; CALSAMIGLIA, S.; STERN, M.D. Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 88, n° 1, pp 9-21, 2005.

BARROS, N.N.; ALVES, J.U.; VASCONCELOS, V.R. Production steers by quality for meat. Brazilian Cattle Livestock, vol. 71, n° 3, pp.32-37, 2003.

BERCHIELLI, T.T.; PIRES, A.V.; OLIVEIRA, S.G. Nutrition in ruminants. In: Antunes R.C. editor. 13 rst ed. Jaboticabal, São Paulo, BR: Funep Books, 239-259p, 2011.

BERRY, D.P.; CROWLEY, J.J. Residual intake and body weight gain: a new measure of efficiency in growing cattle. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 90:109-115, 2012.

BRANSBY, D.I.; MACLAURIN A.R. Designing animal production studies. In: Mannetje TT editor. Field and Laboratory Methods for Grassland and Animal Production Research. 1rst ed. Alabama, New York, USA: CABI Publishing; 327-352p, 2000.

COSTA, R.G.; CORREIA, M.X.; SILVA, J.H.V. Effect of different levels of dehydrated pineapple by-products on intake, digestibility and performance of growing goats. Summary Rumen Review, vol. 71. n° 1, pp.138-143, 2007.

COSTA E SILVA, L.F.; VALADARES FILHO, S.C.; ENGLE, T.E.; ROTTA, P.P.; MARCONDES, M.I. Macro minerals and trace elements by required for meat quality. Plos One, vol. 10, pp.12-19, 2015.

COSTA E SILVA, L.F.; ENGLE, T.E.; VALADARES FILHO, S.C.; ROTTA, P.P.; VALADARES, R.F.D.; SILVA B.C.; PACHECO, M.V.C. Intake, apparent digestibility, and nutrient requirements for growing Nellore heifers and steers fed two levels of calcium and phosphorus. Livestock Science, vol.181, pp. 17-24, 2015b.

YAN, T.; MAYNE, C.S.; PATTERSON, D.C.; AGNEW, R.E. Prediction of body weight and empty body composition using body size measurements in lactating dairy cows. Livestock Science, vol. 124, n°1, pp. 233-24, 2009.

FOX, D.G.; TYLUTKI, T.P.; VAN AMBURGH, M.E.; CHASE, L.E.; PELL, N.A.; OVERTON, T.R.; TEDESCHI, L.O.; RASMUSSEN AND DURBAL, V.M. The net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating herd nutrition and nutrient excretion (AnSci Mineo 213 Ed.). Animal Science Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2000.

HALE, W.H. Influence of processing on the utilization of grains (starch) by ruminants. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 37, n°1, pp.1075-1085, 1973.

MCDONALD, P. (2011). Animal Nutrition. 7nd ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall Books Co.

MOORE, J.E.; BRANT, M.H.; KUNKLE, W.E.; HOPKINS, D.I. Effects of supplementation on voluntary forage intake, diet digestibility, and animal performance. Roche/ASAS Foundation Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: Forage Supplementation and Grazing. University of Florida, Gainsville, 2014.

NRC. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. The nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 7th ed. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press, 2016.

NOCEK, J.E.; TAMMINGA, S. Site of digestion of starch in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and composition. Journal of Dairy Science, vol.74, n°1, pp.3598-3613, 1991.

OLIVEIRA, A.H.; CARNEIRO, M.S.; SALES, R.O. Value Nutritive of Bakery the aliment by sheep. Pubvet, vol. 5, n°2, pp.1043-1055, 2011.

OFFCIAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th ed, 1990.

PASA, C. (2010). Relation reproduction animal and minerals. Biodiversity Review, vol. 1, pp. 101-122, 2010.

PASSINI, R.; SPERS, A.; LUCCI, C.S. Level of partial substitute of corn no diet vs Bakery in the performance Holstein beef cattle. Brazilian Livestock Review, 36(4):689-694, 2010.

PIMENTA, J.L.L.A.; FILHO, C.A.S.; MACEDO, K.B.R.; MAIA, A.M.; LIMA, L.S. Economic feasibility of diets containing different nitrogen sources as a function of weight gain in Saanen breed goats. Brazilian Journal of Develpment, v. 6, n. 3, p. 11028-11037, 2020.

QUEIROZ, S.A. Introduction to breeding beef cattle. Gaiba: Agrobooks, 2012.

SNIFFEN, C.J.; O’CONNOR, J.D.; VAN SOEST, P.J.; FOX, D.G.; RUSSEL, J.B. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating diets: II Carbohydrate and protein availability. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 70, pp.3562-3577, 1992.

VAN SOEST, P.J., ROBERTSON, J.B., LEWIS, B.A. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, vol.74, n° 10, pp.3583-3597, 1991.

TEDESCHI, L.O.; CHALUPA, W.; JANCZEWSKI, E.; FOX, D.G.; SNIFFEN, C.; MUNSON R. Evaluation and application of the CPM Dairy Nutrition model. Journal Agriculture Science, vol. 146, n°2, pp.171-182, 2008.

TEDESCHI, L.O., FOX, D.G. Using mathematical nutrition models to improve beef cattle efficiency. Texas A&M University System, 95-103pp, 2006.

THEURER, C.B. (1986). Summary of steam-flaking corn of sorghum grain for lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 82, n° 1, pp.1950-1965.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv7n1-576

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.