Digital photogrammetry applied to footprints of medium and large mammalfrom two forest fragments in the area influence of the Ilha Solteira Hydroelectric Complex, Brazil / Fotogrametria digital aplicada a pegadas de mamíferos médios e grandes de dois fragmentos de floresta na área de influência do Complexo Hidroeléctrico da Ilha Solteira, Brasil

Juan Vítor Ruiz, Marcos Vinicius Lopes Queiroz, Eleonore Zulnara Freire Setz, Felipe Chinaglia Montefeltro


Medium and large neotropical mammals are usually nocturnal, shy animals, which challenge direct observations, and compromising the study these animals in the field. One solution to this problem is the analysis of vestiges, which include tracks and footprints, as a way to assess the community of medium and large terrestrial mammals. Species identification can be based on the observation of key characters of footprints, which is commonly evaluated through comparisons with photographs and linear drawings in specialized guides. However, since the quality of each footprint depends on the environment factors, including substrate and climate conditions, the guides represent ideal footprints that do not necessarily reflect the conditions most common seen in the field. We carried out an inventory of medium and large mammals through footprint analysis in two fragments in the region under the influence of the Ilha Solteira HPP, Brazil, between February and April 2019. We recorded a total of 16 mammals, of seven orders. We rendered three-dimensional footprint models of four of the recorded species using digital photogrammetry. We argue that this technique allows the reconstruction of the footprints in a faithful way for medium and large neotropical mammals, posing as a viable, and inexpensive alternative to the two-dimensional images of field guides, with the advantage that the 3D models can be analysed from different angles and be produced from footprints on different substrates.


Mammals, Footprints, Digital Photogrammetry, Research Methodology, Ilha Solteira, Forest Fragments.


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