Avaliação de desempenho de usina termelétrica operando com cogeração de energia/Performance evaluation of a thermal power plant operating with cogeneration power

Luiz Antônio de Oliveira Chaves, Lucas Neves de Almeida, Johny Soares Corrêa, Hugo Monstans Thurler dos Santos, Mateus Carvalho Amaral, Luis Gustavo Zelaya Cruz, Stefhany Ramine Alves Nunes da Silva

Abstract


Diferentes tecnologias são atualmente utilizadas para produzir energia, mas conforme o tipo de combustível utilizado a preocupação da poluição ambiental demanda diferentes ações para buscar alternativas viáveis de produção. Dentre as opções, as usinas termelétricas (UTE) podem admitir diferentes configurações de sistemas termodinâmicos cíclicos para recuperação de calor cedido pelo sistema, amplificando a disponibilidade de eletricidade. Quanto ao insumo, o gás natural (GN) apresenta menores efeitos ambientais quando comparado aos outros combustíveis fósseis, gerando menor taxa de emissão de poluentes, além de possuir menor custo associado. Desta forma, o atual artigo tenciona constatar a garantia da eficiência energética de uma UTE de 1772 MW de potência e avaliar as ponderações ambientais de emissão de gás carbônico (CO2), por meio de indicadores-chave de desempenho (KPI) e do estudo comparativo do projeto da planta modelo com dados da literatura. A metodologia do estudo de caso foi utilizada com aplicação da modelagem termodinâmica computacional em regime permanente por dois modelos analíticos para construção da planta de processo, contemplando o conjunto de equações de conservação de massa e energia. Os resultados obtidos demostraram eficiência ao admitir o ciclo em cogeração constatando um desvio percentual na faixa de 0,1% a 3,2 % entre a planta original e os dois modelos propostos. Adicionalmente, os resultados apresentam uma diminuição de até 79,2 % da emissão de CO2 quando confrontado a outras unidades geradoras de energia intensivas em carbono, gerando menor grau de impacto ambiental.


Keywords


Usina termelétrica, Gás natural, Ciclo termodinâmico, Indicador chave de desempenho, Eficiência energética.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv6n10-641

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