Drying Characteristics and Heavy Metal Levels in Three Marine Fishes Commercialized in Brazil / Características de secagem e teor de metais pesados em três espécies de peixes marinhos comercializados no Brasil

Joane Grassi de Oliveira, Matheus Poletto

Abstract


Fish is an important food in human diet. Drying processes are used to preserve its quality while the determination of inorganic contaminants in fish is helpful to maintain human health. In this study, the effect of drying conditions on moisture ratio and effective diffusivity of Prionace glauca (PRG), Squatina guggenheim (SQG) and Theragra chalcogramma (THC) was examined. Five thin layer drying models were fitted to drying data. In addition, the concentration of As, Ni, Cr and Hg in the fish samples were also determined by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results reveal that THC presented both the highest effective moisture diffusivity and moisture evolution with drying time. The Page model showed the best fitting of experimental data. All samples presented levels of Cr and Hg higher than the permitted by Brazilian legislation. High levels of As were found to SQG and PRG. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs in Brazil to prevent the intake of fish meat with high levels of toxic metals.

 


Keywords


dry, diffusion coefficient, fish, metal contamination, modeling.

References


Mataveli, L.R.V.;Bruzzo, M.L.; de Arauz, L.J.; Carvalho, M.F.H.; Arakaki, E.E.K.; Matsuzaki, R.; Tiglea, P. Total arsenic, cadmium, and lead determination in Brazilian rice samples using ICP-MS. J. Anal. Methods Chem. 2016, 2016: 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3968786

Endo, T.; Kimura, O.; Ogasawara, H.; Koga, N.; Kato, Y.; Haraguchi, K. Mercury, cadmium, zinc and copper concentrations and stable isotoperatios of carbon and nitrogen in tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) culledoff Ishigaki Island, Japan. Ecol. Indic. 2015, 55: 86–93 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.03.008

Kosanić, M.; Ranković, B.; Rančić, A.; Satnojković, T. Evaluation of metal contents and bioactivity of two edible mushrooms Agaricus campestris and Boletus edulis. Emir. J. Food Agric. 2017, 29: 98-103. https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.2016-06-656

Reksten, A.M.; Victor, A.M.J.C.; Neves, E.B.N.; Christiansen, S.M.; Ahern, M.; Uzomah, A.; Lundebye, A-K.; Kolding, J.; Kjellevold, M. Nutrient and chemical contaminant levels in five marine fish species from Angola – The EAF-Nansen Progamme. Foods 2020, 9:629. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050629

Santos, A.C.; Barbosa, S.; Pessoa, M.F.; Leal, N.; Reboredo, F.; Lidon, F.; Almeida J. Speciation, mobility and adsorption effects of various metals in sediments in an agricultural area surrounding an uranium ore deposit (Nisa, Portugal). Emir. J. Food Agric. 2018, 30: 503-514. https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.2018.v30.i6.1722

Naseri, M.; Vazirzadeh, A.; Kazemi, R.; Zaheri, F. Concentration of some heavy metals in rice types available in Shiraz market and human health risk assessment. Food Chem. 2015, 175: 243-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.109

Ooi, M.S.M.; Townsend, K.A.; Bennett, M.B.; Richardson, A.J.; Fernando, D.; Villa, C.A.; Gaus, C. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of moduli rays. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2015, 94: 251-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.02.005

Escobar-Sánchez, O.; Gálvan-Magaña, F.; Rosíles-Martínez, R.R. Biomagnification of mercury and selenium in blue shark Prionace glauca from the Pacif Ocean off Mexico. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2011, 144: 550-559. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-011-9040-y

Chavan, B.R.; Yakupitiyage, A.; Kumar, S. Mathematical modelling of drying characteristics of Indian mackerel (Rastrilliger kangurta) in solar-biomass hybrid cabinet dryer. Drying Technol. 2008, 26: 1552-1562. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373930802466872

Darvishi, H.; Azadbakht, M.; Rezaeiasl, A.; Farhang, A. Drying characteristics of sardine fish dried with microwave heating. J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci. 2013, 12: 121-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2012.09.002

FAO. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018 - Meeting the sustainable development goals. 2018. Rome.

Alibas, I.; Köksal, N. Convective, vacuum and microwave drying kinetics of mallow leaves and comparison of color and ascorbic acid values of three drying methods. Food Sci. Technol. 2014, 34: 358-364. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612014005000033

Ozcan-Sinir, G.; Ozkan-Karabacak, A.; Tamer, C.E.; Copur, O.U. The effect of hot air, vacuum and microwave drying on drying characteristics, rehydration capacity, color, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of Kumquat (Citrus japonica). Food Sci. Technol. 2019, 39: 475-484. https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.34417

Kouhila, M.; Moussaoui, H.; Lamsyehe, H.; Tagnamas, Z.; Bahammou, Y.; Idlimam, A.; Lamharrar, A. Drying characteristics and kinetics solar drying of Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincilis) type under forced convection. Renewable Energy 2020, 147: 833-844. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.09.055

Endo, T.; Hisamichi, Y.; Kimura, O.; Kotaki, Y.; Kato, Y.; Ohta, C.; Koga, N.; Haraguchi, K. Contamination levels of mercury in the muscle of female and male spniy dogfhises (Squalus acanthias) caught off the coast of Japan. Chemosphere 2009, 77: 1333-1337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.09.041

Karunanidhi, K.; Rajendran, R.; Pandurangan, D.; Arumugam, G. First report on distribution of heavy metals and proximate analysis in marine edible puffer fishes collected from Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, South India. Toxicol. Rep. 2017, 4: 319–327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2017.06.004

Vignatti, G.; Schneider, V.E.; Poletto, M. Biological assessment and metals concentration in blue shark (Prionace glauca) caught in the southeast-south coast of Brazil. Sci. Cum Ind. 2018, 6: 7-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.18226/23185279.v6iss3p7

Mewa, E.A.; Okoth, M.W.; Kunyanga, C.N.; Rugiri, M.N. Experimental evaluation of beef drying kinetics in a solar tunnel dryer. Renewable Energy 2019, 139: 235-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.02.067

Yilmaz, M.S.; Sakiyan, O.; Mazi, I.B.; Mazi, B.G. Phenolic content and some physical properties of dried broccoli as affected by drying method. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 2019, 25: 76-88. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1082013218797527

Midilli, A.; Kucuk, H.; Yapar, Z. A new model for single-layer drying. Drying Technol. 2002, 20: 1503-1513. https://doi.org/10.1081/DRT-120005864

Sarimeseli A. Microwave drying characteristics of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) leaves. Energy Convers. Manage. 2011, 52: 1449–1453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.10.007

Jain, D.; Pathare, P.B. Study the drying kinetics of open sun drying of fish. J. Food Eng. 2007, 78:1315-1319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.12.044

Lahsasni, S.; Kouhila, M.; Mahrouz, M.; Jaouhari, J.T. Drying kinetics of prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica). J. Food Eng. 2004, 61:173-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(03)00084-0

Doymaz I. Sun drying of figs: an experimental study. J. Food Eng. 2005, 71:403-407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.11.003

Duarte M.E.M.; Mata, M.E.R.M.C.; Araújo, R.D.A.; André, A.M.M.C.N.; Melo, R.B.F.; Sousa, R.V.; Nunes, R.S. Effective diffusiveness coefficient and mathematical modelling of the drying of eggplant. Braz. J. of Develop. 2020, 6: 54117-54124.

https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv6n7-891

Gu, Y-G.; Lin, Q.; Yu, Z-L.; Wang, X-N.; Ke, C-L.; Ning, J-J. Speciation and risk of heavy metals in sediments and human health implications of heavy metals in edible nekton in Beibu Gulf, China: A case study of Qinzhou Bay. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2015, 101: 852-859. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.11.019

Brazil. Resolução - RDC n. 42 de 29 August 2013. Dispõe sobre o regulamento técnico MERCOSUL sobre limites máximos de contaminantes inorgânicos em alimentos. Diário Oficial da União, Brasília, n. 168, p. 33, 30 August 2013.

Brazil. Decreto n. 55871 de 26 March 1965. Modifica o Decreto nº 50.040, 24 January 1961, referente a normas reguladoras do emprego de aditivos para alimentos, alterado pelo Decreto nº 691, de 13 March 1962. Diário Oficial da União, Poder Executivo, Brasília, 09 April 1965.

FAO. Compilation of legal limits for hazardous substances in fish and fishery products. In: FAO Fishery Circular N° 764. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1983, 5-10.

World Health Organization (WHO) – Arsenic. Available online: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/arsenic#:~:text=Long%2Dterm%20exposure%20to%20arsenic,increased%20deaths%20in%20young%20adults. (accessed on 30 08 2020).

WHO. Quality directive of potable water. 2nd ed. WHO, 1994, p.197.

Gu, Y-G.; Lin, Q.; Wang, X-N.; Du, F-Y.; Yu, Z-L.; Huang, H-H. Heavy metal concentration in wild fishes captured from the South China Sea and associated health risks. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2015, 96: 508-512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.04.022

RDA. Recommended Dietary Allowance, tenth ed. National Academic Press, 1989, Washington, DC.

WHO – Mercury and health. Available online: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/mercury-and-health (accessed on 30 08 2020).

Rajeshkumar, S.; Li, X. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China. Toxicol. Rep. 2018, 5: 288–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2018.01.007

Tenuta-Filho, A.; Nascimento, E.S. Review: mercury in shark. Occurrences and possibility or removal. Braz. J. Food Technol. 2007, 10: 78-85.

US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). Risk-based concentration table. Region 3, Philadelphia. PA. 2011.

JECFA (Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives). In: Summary and conclusions of the 61st Meeting of the Join FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, 2003.

Zerizghi, T.; Yang, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, J.; Yi, Y. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metal concentrations in sediments and fish of a shallow lake: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake, North China. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2020, 192: 154. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8078-8

FAO – Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles – The Federative Republic of Brazil. Available online: http://www.fao.org/fishery/facp/bra/en#CountrySector-Statistics (accessed on 30 08 2020).




DOI: https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv6n10-206

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.