Avaliação “in vitro” da eficácia do extrato hidroalcoólico do cajá (Spondias mombin L.) e da graviola (Annona muricata L.) sobre microorganismos orais / In vitro evaluation of the efficacy of cajá (Spondias mombin L.) and soursop (Annona muricata L.) hydroalcoholic extract on oral microorganisms

Raphael Fernando Dias de Freitas, Amanda Pissinatti Canelli, Andrea Aparecida de Aro, Adilson Sartoratto, Cristina Maria Franzini, Vivian Fernandes Furletti de Góes

Abstract


O presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar in vitro os parâmetros químicos e de citotoxicidade seletiva dos extratos hidroalcoólicos da graviola (Annona muricata L.) casca (EGC) e fruto (EGF) e Cajá (Spondias mombin L.) casca (ECC) e fruto (ECF), bem como verificar a atividade antimicrobiana dos mesmos sobre Candida spp., Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum e Porphyromonas gingivalis. A análise dos parâmetros químicos foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (CG-EM). A citotocixidade seletiva foi avaliada através do teste MTT (3-[4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il]-2,5-difenil-brometo de tetrazólio) e as análises microbiológicas dos extratos foram determinadas pelos métodos de microdiluição buscando a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC), e a determinação da concentração fungicida e bactericida mínima (MFC / MBC). As análises de rendimento, CG-EM, MIC, MFC e MBC atenderam aos parâmetros de normalidade e foram analisadas por meio de Two-Way Anova e o MTT por meio de Bonferroni com p < 0,05. Foram observados os melhores rendimentos para EGC (18,50%) e ECC (14,68%). Os compostos químicos majoritários presentes nos extratos foram do grupamento éster. No ensaio de MTT, no tempo de 24h, o EGF apresentou menor citotoxicidade que a clorexidina (p<0,05), enquanto que em 48h, o ECC apresentou menor citotoxicidade que ECF, nistatina e clorexidina (p<0,05). A MIC para os extratos hidroalcoólicos de casca e fruto de ambas as espécies vegetais frente a Candida spp. foi de 8 mg/mL, já para todas as bactérias periodontais apenas o ECC foi efetivo na concentração de 8 mg/mL. Os extratos não demonstraram atividade fungicida e o ECC apresentou ação bactericida na concentração de 8 mg/mL. Pode-se concluir que os extratos da casca e fruto do cajá e da graviola apresentaram baixa atividade antimicrobiana frente aos periodontopatógenos e às células de Candida spp. e não demonstraram atividade fungicida nas concentrações avaliadas. Entretanto o ECC apresentou atividade bactericida, podendo ser considerado alternativa viável como antibiótico devido a menor toxicidade comparada aos fármacos disponíveis comercialmente.

Keywords


Candida spp., microrganismos periodontais, atividade antimicrobiana, extratos vegetais.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv6n9-204

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