Seroprevalence and classification of cases by probability of acute toxoplasmosis among pregnant women from Northeast Brazil / Soroprevalência e classificação de casos por probabilidade de toxoplasmose aguda em gestantes do Nordeste do Brasil

Juliana Gurgel Oliveira, Felipe Medeiros Arruda, Paula Vitória Pereira Motoyama, Ana Catherine Sampaio Braga, Bárbara Miranda Porto, Larissa Rodrigues Esmeraldo Carneiro, Júlio Augusto Gurgel Alves

Abstract


Introduction: Toxoplasmosis rates vary significantly between countries. Acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can cause congenital infections. Objective: to estimate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women from Northeast Brazil and to classify the participants by the probability of acute infection and vertical transmission based on the criteria of the Ministry of Health of Brazil. Methods: Toxoplasmosis prevalence and incidence was studied through 1716 serologic examinations in pregnant women in a tertiary hospital in Fortaleza, state of Ceara, northeast Brazil, between October 2015 and October 2017. The risk of vertical transmission was classified as not infected, possible, probable and definite cases based on IgG and IgM serologies and IgG avidity test. Results: There were 1248 (67.75%) susceptible cases and 468 (27.27%) suggestive of chronic infection. We found 105 cases (6.12%) with positive IgM suggestive of acute toxoplasmosis; however, 12 were excluded as false-positive results. Another 10 cases were categorized as chronic infections by high IgG avidity before 16 weeks. The other cases were divided in the probable (13), possible (69) and definite (1) groups. Conclusions: Toxoplasmosis is a prevalent disease among pregnant women (27.27%) in Northeast Brazil.  The higher IgM values, at least 5 times above cutoff, suggest greater evidence of acute infection in pregnancy. Most of the cases with positive IgM belonged to the possible group and the evidence of acute infection is incomplete in this group. Therefore, the number of patients of this group could have been reduced if the IgG avidity test had been performed in the first trimester.

 

Keywords: Toxoplasmosis, Vertical Transmission of Infectious Disease, Maternal-Fetal Infection Transmission, Serology, Prenatal Care


Keywords


Toxoplasmosis, Vertical Transmission of Infectious Disease, Maternal-Fetal Infection Transmission, Serology, Prenatal Care

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv6n6-034

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