### Computational simulation of kaolin flow in silos by discrete element method / Simulação computacional do fluxo de caulim em silos pelo método dos elementos discretos

#### Abstract

In the flow of particulate material in silos some problems can occur, ranging from an undesired flow pattern to the complete obstruction of the material, if the silo is not correctly sized. Analytical and numerical methods exist for hopper design according to the flow properties of the granulated material. This work aims to predict the behavior of kaolin flow in cylindrical silos with conical hopper using a numerical method, the Discrete Element Method (DEM). One of the advantages of this method is the virtual visualization of the material flow. Therefore, simulations of kaolin flow in acrylic silos using DEM were performed for different geometries (minimum diameter and angle of inclination) to verify the different flow regimes of kaolin (mass flow and funnel flow) and the occurrence of arching (flow obstruction). The results were compared with experimental results and with results of analytical methods of flow prediction. DEM results showed excellent agreement with the flow patterns obtained in the experiments and with analytical results. Therefore, the DEM showed to be an efficient tool in the prediction of material flow in silos and hopper design. Its use can be extended for silos design with complex configurations, where the use of analytical methods for a desirable flow would be much more difficult or not applicable.

#### Keywords

#### Full Text:

PDF (Português (Brasil))#### References

ARNOLD, P.C.; MCLEAN, A.G. Improved analytical flow factors for mass-flow hoppers, Powder Technology, Issue 2, 15, pp. 279–281, Nov-Dec, 1976.

BIAN, X., WANG, G., WANG, H., WANG, S., LV, W. Effect of lifters and mill speed on particle behaviour, torque, and power consumption of a tumbling ball mill: Experimental study and DEM simulation", Minerals Engineering, v. 105, pp. 22-35, 2017.

CALIL JUNIOR, C., CHEUNG, A. Silos: pressões, fluxo, recomendações de para o projeto e exemplos de cálculo, Editora da Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos – USP, 2007.

CLEARY, P. W. DEM prediction of industrial and geophysical particle flows", Particuology, v.8, pp. 106-118, 2010.

CUNDALL, P.A., STRACK, O.D.L. A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies, Geotechnique, 29, p 47–65, 1979.

DNPM - Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral, Sumário Mineral 2014. Disponível em: . Acessado em janeiro de 2020.

ENSTAD, G. On the theory of arching in mass flow hoppers, Chemical & Engineering Science, v. 30, pp. 1273-1283, 1975.

IBRAM – Instituto Brasileiro de Mineração, Imerys leva caulim para as feiras agropecuárias no Pará, 2018. Disponível em: . Acessado em janeiro de 2020.

JENIKE, A., Bulletin 123: Storage and flow of solids, University of Utah Engineering Station, 1964.

JOHANSSON, M., QUIST, J., EVERTSSON, M., HULTHÉN, E. Cone crusher performance evaluation using DEM simulations and laboratory experiments for model validation, Minerals Engineering, v.103–104, pp. 93-101, 2017.

JOHNSON, K. L; KENDALL, K; ROBERTS, A. D. Surface energy and the contact of elastic solid, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, v. 324, pp. 301-313, 1971.

LOPES NETO, J. P., DO NASCIMENTO, J.W.B., SILVA, R.C., DA COSTA, C.A. Powder flow criteria for design of vertical silo walls, Engenharia Agrícola, v.33, n.3, pp.453-462, 2013.

MASCARENHAS, F.P., MESQUITA, A.L.A., CUSTÓDIO FILHO, S.S., MESQUITA, A.L.A. Identificação de propriedades de fluxo do caulim e dimensionamento de tremonha de silo para fluxo mássico, Revista Matéria, v. 22, n.4, 2017

MENEZES, R., ALMEIDA, R., SANTANA, L., FERREIRA, H.S., NEVES, G.A., FERREIRA, H.C. Utilização do resíduo do beneficiamento do caulim na produção de blocos e telhas cerâmicos, Revista Matéria, v. 12, n. 1, pp. 226-236, 2007.

O'SULLIVAN, C. Particle-Based Discrete Element Modeling: Geomechanics Perspective, International Journal of Geomechanics, 11(6), 449-464, 2011.

SCHULZE, D. Powders and bulk solids – behavior, characterization, storage and flow, 1 ed. Springer, 2007.

WALKER, D. An approximate theory for pressures and arching in hoppers, Chemical & Engineering Sciences, v. 21, pp. 975-997, 1966.

WEINHART, T., LABRA, C., LUDING, S., OOI, J. Influence of coarse-graining parameters on the analysis of DEM simulations of silo flow, Powder Technology, v. 293, pp. 138-148, 2016.

ZHU, H.P.; ZHOU, Z.Y.; YANG, R.Y.; YU, A.B. Discrete particle simulation of particulate systems: Theoretical developments, Chemical Engineering Science, v. 62, p 3378–3396, 2007.

### Refbacks

- There are currently no refbacks.