Potential of microencapsulation to protect ascorbic acid under different temperature and pH during heating process

Zahra Abbasi, Maryam Jafari, Mohammad Fazel


Potential of microencapsulation to protect ascorbic acid under different temperature and pH during heating process


Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is an important nutritional component which increases quality and technological properties of food but is naturally unstable. In order to increase the stability of ascorbic acid under a variety of processing conditions, the potential of microencapsulation has been investigated in this work. Six microcapsule formulations were prepared containing gum Arabic (GA), maltodextrin (MD) and chitosan at ratios of 4:1:1, 1:4:1, 1:1:4, 2:2:2, 3:2:1, 3:1:2, respectively. Encapsulation efficiency was varied depending on microcapsules composition and ranged from 40.5% to 80.4%. Microcapsules with higher efficiency were then further characterized by SEM and DSC. Finally, the retention of encapsulated ascorbic acid was evaluated under different simulated process conditions in term of temperature (50, 70, 90 ºC) and pH (3, 4, 5) over time (0 to 200 min). The rate of loss for ascorbic acid varied widely between samples and those encapsulated were more stable at different temperature and pH especially at 50 ºC and pH 5.


: Ascorbic Acid, Encapsulation, Microcapsules Stability, Encapsulation Efficiency

Full Text:



Sartori, T.; Consoli, L.; Hubinger, M. D. & Menegalli, F. C. Ascorbic acid microencapsulation by spray chilling: production and characterization. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 2015, 63(1), 353-360.

Gupta, C.; Chawla, P.; Arora, S.; Tomar, S. & Singh, A. Iron microencapsulation with blend of gum arabic, maltodextrin and modified starch using modified solvent evaporation method–Milk fortification. Food Hydrocolloids, 2015, 43, 622-628.

Williams, R. O.; Mahaguna, V. & Sriwongjanya, M. Characterization of an inclusion complex of cholesterol and hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 1998, 46, 355-360.

Desai, K. & Park, H. J . Encapsulation of vitamin C in tripolyphosphate cross-linked chitosan microspheres by spray drying. Journal of Microencapsulation. 2005, 22(2), 179-192.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Arlington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1984.

Benassi, M. T. & Antunes, A. J. A comparison of metaphosphoric and oxalic acids as extractants solutions for the determination of vitamin C in selected vegetables. Arquivos de Biologia e Tecnologia,1988, 31(4), 507-513.

Madene, A.; Jacquot, M.; Scher, J. & Desobry, S. Flavour encapsulation and controlled release–a review. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 2006, 41(1), 1-21.

McNamee, B. F.; O’Riordan, E. D. & O’Sullivan, M. Emulsification and microencapsulation properties of gum Arabic. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1998, 46, 4551-4555.

Turgeon, S. L.; Schmitt, C. & Sanchez, C. Protein–polysaccharide complexes and coacervates. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science. 2007, 12(4–5), 166-178.

Dima, C.; Cretu, R.; Alexe, P. & Dima, S. Microencapsulation of curiander oil using complex coacervation method. Scientific Study and Research: Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 2013,14(3), 155-162.

Anandharamakrishnan, C.; Rielly, C. D. & Stapley, A. G. F. Spray-freeze-drying of whey proteins at sub-atmospheric pressures. Dairy Science & Technology, 2010, 90(2-3), 321-334.

Pralhad, T. & Rajendrekumar, K. Study of freeze–dried quercetin-cyclodextrin binary systems by DSC, FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2004, 34, 333-339.

Bastianini, M., Sisani, M. & Petracci, A. Ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate inclusion into U-cyclodextrin and mesoporous SBA-15: Preparation, characterization and in vitro release study. Cosmetics, 2017, 4(3), 21-29.

Devi, N. & Kakati, D. K. Smart porous microparticles based on gelatin/sodium alginate polyelectrolyte complex. Journal of Food Engineering, 2013, 117, 193-204.

Wills, R. B. H. & Silalahi, J. Effect of storage temperature on loss of vitamin C in potato crisps. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 1990, 53(2), 275-278.

Comunian, T. A.; Thomazini, M.; Alves, A. J. G.; de Matos-Junior, F. E.; de Carvalho- Balieiro, J. C. & Favaro-Trindade, C. S. Microencapsulation of ascorbic acid by complex coacervation: Protection and controlled release. Food Research International, 2013, 52(1), 373-379.

Herbig, A. L. & Renard, C. M. G. C. Factors that impact the stability of vitamin C at intermediate temperatures in a food matrix. Food Chemistry, 2016, 1(220), 444-451.

Sanchez-Moreno, C.; Plaza, L.; De Ancos, B. & Cano, M. P. Quantitative bioactive compounds assessment and their relative contribution to the antioxidant capacity of commercial orange juices. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2003, 83, 430-439.

Nguyen, T. T. B.; Hein, S.; Ng, C. H. & Stevens, W. F. Molecular stability of chitosan in acid solutions stored at various conditions. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2008, 107, 2588-2593.

Il’ina, A. V. & Varlamov, V. P. Hydrolysis of chitosan in lactic acid. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 2004, 40, 300-303.

Steskova, A.; Morochovicova, M. & Leskova, E. Vitamin C degradation during storage of fortified foods. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2006, 45(2), 55-61.

Farhang, B.; Kakuda, Y. & Corredig, M. Encapsulation of ascorbic acid in liposomes prepared with milk fat globule membrane-derived phospholipids. Dairy Science & Technology, 2012, 92(4), 353-366.


  • There are currently no refbacks.