Knowledge innovations about the COVID-19 pandemic / Inovações de conhecimento sobre a pandemia COVID-19

Gustavo Henrique Duarte de Morais, Andressa Ferreira Andrade, Milena Gonçalves Guerreiro, Gustavo Henrique Sumnienski Bertoldi, Isabela de Araújo Belo Passos, Silvia Regina Seibel de Matos, Cristina Maria Miranda Bello

Abstract


In 2019 an acute respiratory syndrome emerged from Wuhan, China. This pandemic is caused by coronaviruses (CoV), a family of enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses that infect birds and mammals in the intestinal and respiratory systems. This family was responsible for two previous epidemics, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a CoV with high affinity to ACE2 from humans. It binds itself with the ACE2 via spike protein, one of the five encoded proteins. SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a wide range of symptoms, including cough, fever, acute respiratory syndrome, and pneumonia. These are a result of the cytokine storm, which is mainly composed of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α. Due to the air droplets transmission, measures are needed to reduce the spread and transmission of the virus. These measures include the use of alcohol, proper hand hygiene, social distancing and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as PFF2 masks. Our findings were made by the research of the following keywords "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "MERS-CoV", "SARS-CoV", "genome", "epidemiology" and "immunology " in PubMed, Scielo and Google Scholar during the months of February and May 2021. It is clear that the pathophysiology of the disease is complex, varying according to the immune response of each individual. Innate immunity plays an important role in the immune response against the virus, which replicates using the host's cellular machinery and antibodies neutralize and protect the body. Thus, hygiene issues must be highlighted in order to prevent new pandemics. To avoid new pandemics, caution and a multidisciplinary team are needed.

 


Keywords


COVID-19, Environment, Global health.

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv4n5-195

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