Force degradation and staining of aesthetic chain elastics when submitted to different phytotherapic rinses / Degradação forçada e coloração de elásticos de cadeia estética quando submetidos a diferentes enxaguamentos fitoterápicos

Douglas da Silva, Carolina Carmo de Menezes, Alma Blásida Concepción Elizaur Benitez, José Guilherme Neves, Vivian Fernandes Furletti, Rafael Bronzato Bueno, Ana Paula Terossi de Godoi


The objective of this study was to evaluate the color (∆E*) and the degradation of the strength of chain elastics when submitted to different rinses. Forty segments of aesthetics chain elastics (American Orthodontics) were maintained extended in distilled water at 37°C. The elastics (n=10) were immersed twice a day for 60 seconds each in the following solutions: Chlorhexidine Gluconate; Grapefruit essential oil; Ginger and distilled water. The readings were performed in the following times: initial, 24 hours, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days using universal testing machine and spectrophotometer. The force degradation data were analyzed by mixed models for repeated measurements in time, and the data from ∆E* were evaluated by Kruskal Wallis and Dunn and Friedmann and Nemenyi (α=5%). Except for the group immersed in Ginger, there was a significant decrease in force degradation after 24 hours (p<0.05); after 7 days there was force recovery for all solutions. For ∆E* it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between the solutions for most of the time. However, after 28 days Chlorhexidine showed less ∆E* than the other solutions. It is concluded that the time in which the elastic chain is stretched influences the degradation of strength; immersions in rinses with the exception of ginger solution degrade the strength after 24 hours and; there is color change for all solutions after 28 days.


Color, Strength and Orthodontics, Introduction.

Full Text:



Lombardo L, Martini M, Cervinara F, Spedicato GA, Oliverio T, Siciliani G. Comparative SEM analysis of nine F22 aligner cleaning strategies. Prog Orthod 2017;18(1):26. doi:10.1186/s40510-017-0178-9.

Kumar K, Shetty S, Krithika MJ, Cyriac B. Effect of commonly used beverage, soft drink, and mouthwash on force delivered by elastomeric chain: a comparative in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):7-10.

Ardeshna AP, Vaidyanathan TK. Colour changes of orthodontic elastomeric module materials exposed to in vitro dietary media. J Orthod 2009;36(3):177-85. doi:10.1179/14653120723166.

Aldrees AM, Al-Foraidi SA, Murayshed MS, Almoammar KA. Color stability and force decay of clear orthodontic elastomeric chains: An in vitro study. Int Orthod 2015;13(3):287-301. doi:10.1016/j.ortho.2015.06.003.

Ramachandraiah S, Sridharan K, Nishad A, Manjusha KK, Abraham EA, Ramees MM. Force Decay Characteristics of commonly used Elastomeric Chains on Exposure to various Mouth Rinses with different Alcohol Concentration: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(9):813-820.

Pithon MM, Barretto JR, Andrade CSS, Novaes FPD, Luz MDN, Andrade ACDVD, Coqueiro RS. Do alcoholic beverages interfere in the force of orthodontic elastics? Revista de Odontologia da UNESP 2014;43(3):191-195.

Pithon MM, Rodrigues AC, Sousa ELSM, Santos LPS, Soares NS. Do mouthwashes with and without bleaching agents degrade the force of elastomeric chains? Angle Orthod 2013;83(4):712-7. doi: 10.2319/081012-646.1.

Behnaz M, Dalaie K, Hosseinpour S, Namvar F, Kazemi L. The effect of toothpastes with bleaching agents on the force decay of elastomeric orthodontic chains. European journal of dentistry. 2017;11(4):427. doi: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_83_17.

Behnaz M, Namvar F, Sohrabi S, Parishanian M. Effect of Bleaching Mouthwash on Force Decay of Orthodontic Elastomeric Chains. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2018;19(2):221-225. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2240.

Shah SS, Nambiar S, Kamath D, Suman E, Unnikrishnan B, Desai A, Mahajan S, Dhawan KK. Comparative Evaluation of Plaque Inhibitory and Antimicrobial Efficacy of Probiotic and Chlorhexidine Oral Rinses in Orthodontic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Dent 2019. doi: 10.1155/2019/1964158.

Bauer TRF, Furletti-Goes VF, Franzini CM, de Aro AA, de Andrade TAM, Sartoratto A, de Menezes CC. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of Zingiber officinale mouthwash on patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2021 Jan;159(1):21-29. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2019.10.025.

Losito KAB, Lucato AS, Tubel CAM, Correa CA, Santos JCB. Force decay in orthodontic elastomeric chains after immersion in disinfection solutions. Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences 2014; 13(4):266-269.

Zanatta FB, Rosing CK. Chlorhexidine: action’s mechanisms and recent evidences of it’s efficacy over supragingival biofilm context. Scientific-A 2007;1(2):35-43.

Charles CH, Mostler KM, Bartels LL, Mankodi SM. Comparative antiplaque and antigingivitis effectiveness of a chlorhexidine and an essential oil mouthrinse: 6‐ month clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2004 Oct;31(10):878-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2004.00578.x.

Raszewski Z, Nowakowska-Toporowska A, Weżgowiec J, Nowakowska D. Design, and characteristics of new experimental chlorhexidine dental gels with anti-staining properties. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2019 Jul;28(7):885-890. doi: 10.17219/acem/94152.

Larrabee TM, Liu SSY, Gorena AT, Rojas AS, Eckert GJ, Stewart KT. The effects of varying alcohol concentrations commonly found in mouth rinses on the force decay of elastomeric chain. Angle Orthod 2012; 82(5):894-9. doi: 10.2319/062211-407.1.

Shapiro S, Giertsen E, Guggenheim B. An in vitro oral biofilm model for comparing the efficacy of antimicrobial mouthrinses. Caries research 2002; 36(2):93-100. doi: 10.1159/000057866.

Habauzit V, Morand C. Evidence for a protective effect of polyphenols- containing foods on cardiovascular health: an update for clinicians. Therapeutic advances in chronic disease 2012;3(2):87-106. doi: 10.1177/2040622311430006.

Santamaria, J. Antimicrobial effect of melaleuca alternofilia dental gel in orthodontic patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2014;145:196-202. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2013.10.015.

Silva FT, Cunha F, Fonseca LM, Antunes MD, El Halal SLM, Fiorentini ÂM, Zavareze EDR, Dias ARG. Action of ginger essential oil (Zingiber officinale) encapsulated in proteins ultrafine fibers on the antimicrobial control in situ. International journal of biological macromolecules 2018;118:107-115. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.06.079.

Grégio AMT, Fortes ESM, Rosa EAR, Simeoni RB, Rosa RT. Antimicrobial activity from Zingiber officinalle on oral cavity pathogens. Estud Biolog 2006;28(62):61-66. doi:

Azizi A, Aghayan S, Zaker S, Shakeri M, Entezari N, Lawaf S. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis. Int J Dent 2015;489842. doi: 10.1155/2015/489842.

Aghazadeh M, Bialvaei AZ, Aghazadeh M, Kabiri F, Saliani N, Yousefi M Eslami H, Samadi Kafil H. Survey of the Antibiofilm and Antimicrobial Effects of Zingiber officinale (in Vitro Study). Jundishapur J Microbiol 2016;9(2): e30167. doi: 10.5812/jjm.30167.

Khurana S, Venkataraman K, Hollingsworth A, Piche M, Tai TC. Polyphenols: benefits to the cardiovascular system in health and in aging. Nutrients 2013;5(10):3779-3827. doi:10.3390/nu5103779.

Paredes M, Romecín P, Atucha NM, O'Valle F, Castillo J, Ortiz MC, García-Estañ J. Beneficial Effects of Different Flavonoids on Vascular and Renal Function in L-NAME Hypertensive Rats. Nutrients 2018;10(4):484. doi: 10.3390/nu10040484.

Filoche SK, Soma K, Sissons CH. Antimicrobial effects of essential oils in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate. Oral microbiology and immunology 2005;20(4):221-225.

Kochenborger C, Silva DL, Marchioro EM, Vargas DA, Hahn L. Assessment of force decay in orthodontic elastomeric chains: an in vitro study. Dental Press J. Orthod 2011;16(6):93-99.

De Aguiar AM, Aguiar AM, Gurgel JA, Vercelino CRMP, Maia Filho EM, Bandeca MC, Tavarez RR. The Prestretching Effect on the Force Decay of Orthodontic Elastic Chain. The journal of contemporary dental practice 2014;15(4):456-460. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1562.

Schulze KA, Marshall SJ, Gansky SA, Marshall GW. Color stability and hardness in dental composites after accelerated aging. Dent Mater. 2003 Nov;19(7):612-9. doi:10.1016/s0109-5641(03)00003-4.

Motta AFJ, Cury-Saramago AA, Nojima LI. In vitro evaluation of force delivered by elastomeric chains. Dental Press J. Orthod 2011;16(6):36-37.

Omidkhoda M, Rashed R, Khodarhami N. Evaluation of the effects of three different mouthwashes on the force decay of orthodontic chains. Dent Res J (Isfaha) 2015;12(4):348-352. doi: 10.4103/1735-3327.161453.

Godoi APT, Freitas DB, Trauth KGS, Colucci V, Catirse ABCEB. Combined effect of the association between chlorhexidine and a diet protein on color stability of resin composites. Int J Clin Dent 2011;4(2)113-121.

Hwang C, Cha J. Mechanical and biological comparison of latex and silicone rubber bands. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2003;124(4):379-386. doi: 10.1016/s0889-5406(03)00564-x.

Kanchana P, Godfrey K. Calibration of force extension and force degradation characteristics of orthodontic latex elastics. . Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2000;118(3):280-287. doi: 10.1067/mod.2000.104493.

Weissheimer A, Locks A, Menezes LM, Borgatto AF, Derech CA. In vitro evaluation of force degradation of elastomeric chains used in orthodontics. Dental Press J. Orthod 2013;18(1):55-62.

Liu CC, Wataha JC, Craig RG. The effect of repeated stretching on the force decay and compluance of vulcanized cis-polyisoprene orthodontic elastics. Dent Mater 1993;9(1):37-40. doi: 10.1016/0109-5641(93)90103-w.

Moris A, Sato K, Facholli AFDL, Nascimento JE, Sato FRL. In vitro study of the force degradation of latex orthodontic elastics under dynamic conditions. Rev. Dent. Press Ortodon. Ortop. Facial 2009;14(2):95-108.

Javanmardi Z, Salehi P. Effects of Orthokin, Sensikin and Persica mouth rinses on the force degradation of elastic chains and NiTi coil springs. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2016;10(2):99-105. doi: 10.15171/joddd.2016.016.

Kawabata E, Dantas VL, Kato CB, Normando D. Color changes of esthetic orthodontic ligatures evaluated by orthodontists and patients: a clinical study. Dental Press J. Orthod 2016;21(5):53-57.

Vichi A, Ferrari M, Davidson CL. Color and opacity variations in three different resin-based composite products after water aging. Dent Mater 2004; 20(6):530-534. doi: 10.1016/

Rüttermann S, Suyoun K, Raab WHM, Janda R. Effect of exposure time on the color stability of resin-based restorative materials when polymerized with quartz–tungsten halogen and LED light. Clin Oral Invest 2010;14:599–605. doi: 10.1007/s00784-009-0316-y.

Ceci M, Viola M, Rattalino D, Beltrami R, Colombo M, Poggio C. Discoloration of different esthetic restorative materials: A spectrophotometric evaluation. Eur J Dent. 2017;11(2):149-156. doi: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_313_16.

Silva PMB, Acosta EJTR, Jacobina M, Pinto LR, Porto VC. Effect of repeated immersion solution cycles on the color stability of denture tooth acrylic resins. Journal of Applied Oral Science 2011;19(6):623-627.

Yiu CKY, King NM, Pashley DH, Suh BI, Carvalho RM, Carrilho MRO, Tay FR. Effect of resin hydrophilicity and water storage on resin strength. Biomaterials 2004;25(26):5789-5796. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.01.026.

Devlin H, Kaushik P. The effect of water absorption on acrylic surface properties. Journal of Prosthodontics: Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry 2005;14(4):233-238.



  • There are currently no refbacks.