Controvérsias no diagnóstico e tratamento do hipercortisolismo subclínico / Controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of subclinical hypercortisolism

Giovanni Ferreira Santos, Ana Laura Caldeira Souza, Lucas Santos de Barros Moreira, Ana Luiza Carneiro Rodrigues Souza, Gabriel Machado Souto Padron, Giselle Cunha Barbosa Safatle

Abstract


O Hipercortisolismo Subclínico (HS) é uma condição de difícil diagnóstico e está presente em até 30% dos casos de Incidentaloma Adrenal (IA). O hipercortisolismo em um nível sutil e prolongado tem diversas consequências, tendo como comorbidades associadas mais frequentes a hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), a diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 (DM2), a osteoporose, dislipidemia, a obesidade, doenças cardiovasculares e desequilíbrio no sistema músculo-esquelético. O diagnóstico ainda carece de um padrão ouro e diverge quanto as diversas diretrizes das sociedades de endocrinologia, porém o teste que tem se mostrado mais eficiente é o teste de supressão com 1mg de dexametasona (TSD), que deve ser acompanhado de outros testes de confirmação, que dependem da recomendação da diretriz analisada, os quais podem incluir o cortisol salivar noturno (CSN), o cortisol livre urinário de 24 horas (CLU), os níveis de ACTH e os níveis de sulfato de dehidroepiandrosterona (DHEAS), além de outros testes. O tratamento será decidido entre a intervenção cirúrgica ou pelo tratamento conservador. A decisão quanto o tratamento também não está em consenso na literatura, visto que existe a necessidade de evidências de mais alto nível, entretanto, estudos analisados parecem consentir para um bom prognóstico no que tange a intervenção cirúrgica em detrimento da terapia conservadora, a qual raramente mostra-se benéfica e pode apresentar, inclusive, piora do estado e comorbidades associadas ao HS.


Keywords


Hipercortisolismo Subclínico, Síndrome De Cushing Subclínica, Incidentaloma Adrenal, Adrenalectomia.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv4n5-030

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