Perfil Epidemiológico das principais drogas e substâncias relacionadas à etiologia da Anafilaxia Perioperatória no Brasil e no Mundo: uma revisão literária / Epidemiological Profile of the main drugs and substances related to the etiology of Perioperative Anaphylaxis in Brazil and in the World: a literary review

Antonio Augusto Machado Teles Filho, Maria Eduarda Pontes Cunha de Castro

Abstract


A anafilaxia é definida como uma reação de hipersensibilidade generalizada ou sistêmica grave com risco à vida (DHAMI et al, 2014). A anafilaxia perioperatória seria então uma reação sistêmica que ocorre durante a indução anestésica minutos após a administração intravenosa (IV), podendo ocorrer também com agentes administrados por outras vias. Dados epidemiológicos sugerem que a incidência global de anafilaxia induzida por drogas tem aumentado, destacando a necessidade de melhoria nos sistemas de notificação de alergias (VOROBEICHIK L, WEBER EA, TARSHIS J, 2018). O conhecimento sobre os gatilhos comuns, diagnóstico, tratamento e teste de acompanhamento da anafilaxia perioperatória são imprescindíveis. A preocupação com o risco de anafilaxia tem demonstrado alterar a prática clínica dos anestesistas e os testes de alergia e acompanhamento são cruciais para o diagnóstico e prevenção de outros eventos (HARPER N, COOK TM, GARCEZ T, LUCAS DN, THOMAS M, KEMP H, et al., 2018).OBJETIVO: Portanto, o objetivo desta revisão literária é descrever os principais agentes relacionados com a ocorrência de anafilaxia perioperatória e discutir sobre  identificação dos pacientes com maior risco de adquirir essa reação. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma revisão literária integrativa, a qual foram estudados na íntegra 65 artigos sobre o tema, retirados e triados da base de dados PubMed, o qual foi utilizada a seguinte busca: “perioperative anaphylaxis”. Conclusão: Os Bloqueadores Neuromusculares, Antibióticos, Látex, Clorexidina e Corante azul patente prevalecem na maioria das literaturas como os principais gatilhos. É indubitável a reflexão sobre a necessidade de maiores cuidados antes, durante e após o tempo cirúrgico, além de necessária uma maior atenção quanto às drogas anestésicas utilizadas, procedimentos realizados e a realização de uma anamnese mais minuciosa. Ademais, mais estudos sobre o tema são necessários, no intuito de ampliar as informações já adquiridas para melhorar o suporte ao paciente.


Keywords


Anafilaxia, Hipersensibilidade a Drogas, Alergia e Imunologia.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv4n3-087

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