A eficácia da clorexidina como agente antimicrobiano na prevenção da pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica (PAVM) em adultos: revisão integrativa de literatura / The efficacy of chlorhexidine as an antimicrobial agent in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in adults: an integrative literature review

Morgana de Menezes Maia, Carla Roberta Monteiro Miura, Keller de Martini, Denise Caluta Abranches

Abstract


O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar na literatura nacional e internacional estudos sobre a efetividade e aplicabilidade da clorexidina como agente antimicrobiano na higiene oral, como medida de prevenção de Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica (PAVM). Por meio de uma revisão integrativa da literatura com busca de dados realizada entre julho e agosto de 2020 nas bases de dados LILACS, BBO, SciELO e MEDLINE, utilizou-se os descritores: pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica/pneumonia, ventilator-associated/neumonía asociada al ventilador, higiene bucal/higiene bucal/oral hygiene e clorexidina/clorhexidina/chlorhexidine. Foram incluídas pesquisas publicadas na íntegra entre 2015 e 2020 nos idiomas inglês, português ou espanhol. Foram encontrados 13 artigos finais de acordo com os critérios estabelecidos. Destes, 12 artigos (92,3%) demonstraram a eficiência e a capacidade da clorexidina em reduzir os níveis de PAVM em pacientes admitidos em UTI, com resultados satisfatórios mesmo quando comparada com outras substâncias.mA prevalência da PAVM é considerada uma grande adversidade na prevenção de infecções relacionadas à assistência a saúde. É notável que a clorexidina demonstrou capacidade de reduzir estes índices quando utilizada como antimicrobiano na higiene oral diária. Além disso a padronização dos protocolos de cuidados orais, a presença de um cirurgião-dentista na equipe, o trabalho interprofissional e o treinamento da equipe também fazem parte da estratégia de prevenção da PAVM. A partir disso, sugere-se que este mecanismo de prevenção seja inserido na rotina das UTIs, com o propósito de promover qualidade assistencial e segurança ao paciente.


Keywords


pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica/pneumonia, ventilator-associated; clorexidina/chlorhexidine; higiene bucal/oral hygiene; unidade de terapia intensiva/intensive care units; unidade hospitalar de odontologia/dental service, hospital; ventiladores

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv4n3-048

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