Yellow Fever immunization: an integrative review on vacinal security / Imunização contra Febre Amarela: uma revisão integrativa sobre segurança vacinal

Clara Marques Santana, Danielle Emenegildo Valbusa

Abstract


Introduction: Yellow fever (YF) is an acute, febrile, non-contagious infectious disease caused by arboviruses. Clinically, YF ranges from asymptomatic to malignant forms. The disease is transmitted by the bite of the female hematophagous arthropods of the Culicidae family. The main form of prevention of YF is vaccination. In this bias, some conditions determine the highest incidence of adverse effects of vaccination, such as: primary vaccination in people over 60 years of age, vaccination of patients with immunosuppressive diseases or hematological diseases. Adverse effects are also related to the techniques used, material used and patient guidance. Materials and methods: The databases used were Lilacs and Scielo to review the national and indexed literature about safety of yellow fever vaccine. The descriptors were: “immunization” and “yellow fever”. Original articles in Portuguese or English published from January 2010 to April 2020 were included. Articles that do not address vaccine safety and those that did not contain a Brazilian author were excluded. Editorials and reviews were excluded. Discussion: 71 articles were found. Of these, 66 were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Thus, five studies were included. They claim, based on epidemiology, that most adverse reactions are due to the immunogenicity of the pertussis component – especially in children under 12 months of age – and methodological administration errors – such as primary vaccination in those over 60 years of age. The most common effects are fever, rash and hypersensitivity. Adverse reactions are rare, and serious ones, such as viceroscopic disease, are a minority. This scenario is caused by high efficiency in the quality verification of the National Immunization Program in Brazil. However, the efficiency of vaccination could increase through legislative mechanisms that regulate the forms of presentation on the packaging, avoiding waste and expiration. Conclusion: Little is national production on the theme. References indicate high safety and quality in the surveillance and legislation of immunization - despite, greater training of professionals involved in prescription and administration could increase the cost benefit of vaccination. Thus, the discussion and clarification about vaccine safety is one of the foundations for opposing the growing of against-vaccination trend. Financial Support: This scientific work does not have financial support from institutions or people.


Keywords


Yellow fever, immunization, infectious diseases, Yellow Fever Vaccine.

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv4n1-231

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