Autismo e hipoperfusão cerebral Autism and cerebral hyperoperfusion

Joycyelly Lourenço Garcia da Silva, Rafaelly Maia Clemente, Jayanny Lourenço Garcia da Silva, Bruna Stéfanni de Medeiros Ramos, Luciana Karla Viana Barroso

Abstract


Introdução: O Autismo é considerado um transtorno do neurodesenvolvimento que afeta de maneira evidente o funcionamento social e a autossuficiência, sendo comum a dependência desses pacientes para com a família. Suas características envolvem dificuldades na interação social e comunicação, padrões de interesse repetitivos, bem como, movimentos estereotipados. Estudos utilizando tomografia por emissão de pósitrons e tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único identificou que os pacientes diagnosticados com Autismo apresentavam hipoperfusão ou fluxo sanguíneo cerebral inadequado.  Dessa forma, evidências mostram que quanto menor esse fluxo em áreas específicas, maior sintomatologia da doença. Metodologia: A pesquisa foi realizada através de uma revisão bibliográfica, utilizando as bases de dados Scielo, PubMed e Science Direct. As palavras chaves utilizadas para a busca foram: hipoperfusão cerebral e Autismo, em inglês. Os critérios para seleção e inclusão foram estudos publicados nos últimos 20 anos relacionados à temática proposta. Resultados: Foi evidenciado que existe no Autismo um fluxo sanguíneo inadequado para diversas áreas encefálicas, tais como: como substância nigra, cerebelo, núcleo caudado, sistema límbico, tálamo, córtex pré-frontal, entre outros. Nos casos de hipoperfusão na parte medial direita do córtex pré-frontal foram identificadas dificuldades de comunicação e interação social, o desejo obsessivo por mesmice foi positivamente correlacionado com o hipocampo direito e amígdala. O que possivelmente ocorre nesses pacientes é que não há resposta compensatória do fluxo sanguíneo mediante tarefa, isto é, enquanto o cérebro normal diminui a resistência e, dessa forma, aumenta o fluxo sanguíneo, foi observado que nos autistas ocorre o contrário, ou seja, há ausência do sinal/receptor envolvido na vasodilatação do cérebro. Conclusão: Observou-se que o fluxo sanguíneo cerebral desajustado pode ser o fator determinante nas características clínicas do Autismo. Dessa maneira, é essencial a busca de uma melhor compreensão de suas bases neurobiológicas, com a participação de neurologistas, neurocientistas, fisioterapeutas, fonoaudiólogos no intuito de conceder um melhor manejo e qualidade de vida para os pacientes com Transtorno de Espectro Autista (TEA).


Keywords


Autismo, Hipoperfusão Cerebral, Fisiopatologia, Complicações.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv4n1-175

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