Efetividade da EMDR no tratamento do transtorno de estresse pós-traumático: Uma revisão integrativa / Effectiveness of EMDR in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: An integrative review

Thaís Westerich Izotton, Ismaiara Báo, Mayra Zancanaro, Ricardo Marcelo Sachser

Abstract


O transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT) é definido como um estado emocional disfuncional desencadeado pela exposição a um evento altamente estressor. A terapia cognitivo-comportamental (TCC) é amplamente utilizada no tratamento do transtorno, porém, ainda que de forma parcialmente efetiva, pois se observam altas taxas de recidiva na população diagnosticada. A Eye Movement Dessensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), por sua vez, é uma técnica de base da TCC que consiste na reativação da memória traumática associada ao exercício repetitivo dos movimentos oculares, e já foi considerada igualmente – ou mais – efetiva que a TCC. Sob esta perspectiva, esta revisão foi elaborada com o objetivo de identificar evidências da efetividade da EMDR no tratamento do TEPT. Analisou-se estudos publicados entre os anos de 2015 a 2020, avaliando a eficácia do uso da EMDR e identificando questões em aberto no campo da psiquiatria que instiguem a investigação dos mecanismos mnemônicos subjacentes ao seu tratamento e aplicabilidade na prática clínica em saúde mental. Os resultados evidenciaram que a EMDR é benéfica para o tratamento do TEPT em diversas populações, tendo resultados normalmente equiparáveis a outras terapias. Porém, observou-se uma escassez de estudos com metodologia direcionada aos fatores mnemônicos que justifiquem sua efetividade. De particular interesse, nenhuma das literaturas analisadas explorou a distinção entre os fenômenos de reconsolidação e extinção da memória que, em tese, devem mediar os efeitos terapêuticos obtidos pela EMDR em pacientes com TEPT.


Keywords


Emoção, Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento por meio de Movimentos Oculares, Reconsolidação da Memória, Extinção da Memória, Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv3n6-019

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