Manejo de pacientes com aneurisma de aorta torácica: uma revisão bibliográfica/Management of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm: a literature review

Ronan Vieira Mendonça, Irwing Franck de Almeida Alves, Guilherme de Freitas Braga Borges

Abstract


Introdução: Um aneurisma de aorta é uma dilatação e enfraquecimento de uma área do vaso arterial, o que aumenta o risco de laceração e hemorragia em sua parede causando dissecção, ou tecido circundante causando ruptura. Apesar dos avanços ocorridos nos exames diagnósticos, métodos de monitorização e técnicas cirúrgicas, as doenças da aorta continuam sendo importante causa de mortalidade e morbidade cardiovascular, e um permanente desafio a cardiologistas e cirurgiões. Objetivo: Fazer uma revisão bibliográfica sobre manejo de pacientes com aneurisma de aorta torácica e descrever a fisiopatologia da doença, fatores de risco, principais métodos diagnósticos e paradigmas de tratamento recentes. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão de literatura realizada nas seguintes bases de dados: New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), The Lancet, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) e Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Utilizou-se na busca dos artigos os seguintes descritores: Aneurisma Aórtico. Aneurisma Dissecante. Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica. Foram selecionados artigos escritos em inglês, português ou espanhol. Após isso, as informações foram ordenadas, analisadas e discutidas. Resultados: Nas bases de dados, os artigos encontrados, desconsiderando a duplicidade de título, foram submetidos aos critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Alguns artigos foram escolhidos quando com grande relevância e cujo tema possuía alguma relação com este trabalho. Ao final, 44 artigos foram utilizados nesta revisão de literatura. O diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças da aorta sempre foi um tema importante, mas frequentemente complexo, da cirurgia cardiovascular. Isso não é apenas devido ao papel da aorta como a maior e mais vital artéria do corpo, mas também porque pode assumir uma variedade de formas com uma ampla gama de consequências, desde doença assintomática lentamente progressiva até morte súbita por ruptura. Conclusão: O aneurisma da aorta é uma condição que leva a dilatação do vaso com enfraquecimento de sua parede. Logo, quantificar a verdadeira incidência de aneurismas de aorta é difícil, e sua letalidade resulta em dados de mortalidade extra-hospitalar que costumam ser imprecisos. Apesar de tais desafios, os esforços e estudos sobre os aneurismas de aorta são essenciais, com uma detecção precoce e tratamento das doenças da aorta, para que haja, assim, um melhor cuidado ao paciente.


Keywords


Aneurisma Aórtico, Aneurisma Dissecante, Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv3n6-009

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