Manifestações gastrointestinais em pacientes infectados pelo SARS-CoV-2: Revisão sistemática da literatura/ Gastrointestinal manifestations in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: Systematic literature review

Ana Paula Santos Oliveira Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito, Aliny de jesus Quintino, Isabela Blosfeld Mansour, Catarina da Silva Récio, Nathália Jucá de Azevedo Picanço

Abstract


A grande pandemia da Covid-19, ocasionada pela síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2), afetou milhares de vidas ao redor de todo o mundo, sendo considerada pela Organização Mundial de Saúde uma emergência internacional de saúde pública. Além dos sintomas respiratórios clássicos, sintomas digestivos foram frequentemente identificados pelos infectados com doença. Anorexia, náuseas, vômitos, diarreia, dor abdominal, entre outros sintomas, não foram incomuns nestes pacientes, podendo inclusive ocorrer isoladamente ou precocemente em comparação com sintomas respiratórios. Diante disso, o presente estudo teve como objetivo revisar a literatura sobre manifestações gastrointestinais em pacientes infectados pelo novo coronavírus. A busca dos artigos foi realizada em bases de dados eletrônicas, utilizando os seguintes descritores: “covid-19”, “sars-cov-2”, “gastrointestinal disorder”, “gastrointestinal diseases” e “diarrhea”. A busca inicial resultou em 62 artigos. O processo de análise dos estudos envolveu leitura de títulos, resumos e textos completos. Ao retirar os artigos duplicados, e aplicar os critérios de inclusão e exclusão, restaram 22 estudos para análise. Após a análise dos dados, foram encontradas informações relevantes quanto ao perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes, sendo identificado o intervalo de idade de 41 a 70 anos, predominando o sexo masculino. Os sintomas mais prevalentes foram: inapetência, diarreia, náuseas, vômitos e dores abdominais. Em menor escala, também foram encontrados casos em que os pacientes apresentaram anorexia, hemoptise, hematoquezia, dor epigástrica, distensão abdominal, tenesmo, melena, refluxo, disfagia e constipação. Na literatura, ainda existem muitos questionamentos quanto ao comportamento do SARS-CoV-2 e sua relação com os sintomas gastrointestinais. Entretanto, as manifestações digestivas são importantes marcadores diagnósticos em pacientes infectados e devem ser consideradas e observadas com atenção, para que possam servir como ferramenta de auxílio no combate à pandemia.


Keywords


Covid-19, Sars-CoV-2, Gastrointestinal Disorder, Gastrointestinal Diseases, Diarrhea.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv3n5-252

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