CRISPR-CAS9 fighting human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 subtype in CD4+ T lymphocytes: a literature review / CRISPR-CAS9 e combate ao vírus da imunodeficiência humana subtipo HIV-1 em LINFÓCITOS T CD4+: uma revisão de literatura

Ivson Warley Tôrres dos Anjos, Inaldo Antônio dos Anjos Filho, Laura Virgínia Braga Vilela Marinho, Nicole Valentine de Moura Santos, Nathalia Joanne Bispo Cezar

Abstract


The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) requires glycoproteins and specific receptors found in the host and its immune system, like so glycoprotein 120 is responsible for binding to the CD4+ molecule and later binding to the CCR5 or CXCR4 co-receptors. Based on these mechanisms, cell entrance can occur for the replication of viral genetic material. After various investigations on the way bacteria act when facing viral invaders, the CRISPR-Cas9 tool was an explicit protection promoter against HIV-1 in humans. Currently, studies about the simultaneous knockout of CCR5 and CXCR4 genes in CD4+ T cells via CRISPR-Cas9 confer resistance to HIV infection. In this context, research related to the CCR5 delta 32 mutation has a high degree defense against HIV. Besides, mutations in co-receptors may explain the lack of infections in this group. Lastly, a CRISPR-Cas9 technique represents a major breakthrough against HIV-1 infection from co-receptor issues, making it impossible for the virus to attach the cell. From this review, it was possible to observe the importance of the genetic engineering tool CRISPR-Cas9 to be used as a way to treat people affected with HIV, through approaches in CCR5 and CXCR4 co-receptors, as well as alternative methods for its use when the virus is at intracellular latent state.

 

 


Keywords


CRISPR-Cas9; HIV-1; CCR5; CXCR4; co-receptors; HIV.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv3n5-114

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