SARS-CoV-2 como agente causador da COVID-19: Epidemiologia, características genéticas, manifestações clínicas, diagnóstico e possíveis tratamentos / SARS-CoV-2 as the causative agent of COVID-19: Epidemiology, genetic characteristics, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and possible treatments

Vitor de Lima Bezerra, Thomás Bezerra dos Anjos, Lilian Emanuelle Santos de Souza, Thiago Bezerra dos Anjos, Alexia Mercês Vidal, Auvani Antunes da Silva Júnior

Abstract


Objetivo: realizar uma revisão integrativa das principais características da SARS-CoV-2 e dos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e diagnósticos da COVID-19, bem como seus possíveis tratamentos. Metodologia: Com base nesse objetivo, a pesquisa foi realizada com os descritores "COVID-19"; "Coronavírus"; "SARS-CoV-2"; "2019-nCoV" e "Novo coronavírus" nos bancos de dados PUBMED, MEDLINE, SPRINGER e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS). Foram selecionados artigos em inglês, português e espanhol publicados no período de 2016 a 2020, excluindo relatos de casos, relatos de experiência e editoriais. Resultados e Discussão: 47 artigos foram identificados como elegíveis. Nestes, existe um consenso sobre o alto grau de transmissibilidade, com pequenas divergências no número básico de reprodução (R0). Também houve grande relevância na avaliação clínica dos pacientes para o diagnóstico. No entanto, para confirmação laboratorial, predominou o uso do teste de reação em cadeia da polimerase com transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR). Os sintomas mais recorrentes nos estudos de observação do paciente incluem febre, tosse, mialgia, fadiga e dispnéia. Quanto ao tratamento farmacológico, não foram identificadas evidências concretas, com consenso sobre o uso de drogas sintomáticas. Conclusão: Assim, dado o alto grau de disseminação do vírus e a ausência de vacinas ou terapias eficazes, destaca-se a necessidade urgente de mais estudos na área.

 


Keywords


COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Manifestações clínicas, Diagnóstico.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv3n4-097

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