Preditoras da propensão ao empreendedorismo / Predictive individual characteristics of entrepreneurship propensity

Loreni Maria dos Santos Braum, Vânia Maria Jorge Nassif

Resumo


O empreendedorismo desempenha papel relevante no desenvolvimento econômico. Em razão disso, desde a década de 1990 diferentes estudos foram conduzidos com o propósito de analisar as características individuais dos futuros empreendedores. Contudo, há diversidade na operacionalização e esta se reflete nos conceitos sem que haja consenso dos mesmos. Neste sentido, este estudo tem por objetivo analisar as definições e operacionalizações contidas no construto propensão ao empreendedorismo e seus correlatos, visando identificar as características individuais preditoras de quem poderá tornar-se empreendedor no futuro. A base teórica trata do construto propensão ao empreendedorismo e de três construtos correlatos: inclinação ao empreendedorismo, orientação empreendedora individual e tendência ao empreendedorismo, apresentando as definições e as características individuais usadas para operaciopnalizá-los. Quanto à metodologia, é empregada a abordagem qualitativa e o tratamento dos dados se deu por meio da análise de conteúdo temática. Os resultados revelam que, enquanto alguns estudos contidos nestes construtos teóricos analisam características individuais de futuros empreendedores no âmbito predisposicional, ou seja, em um estágio que antecede a intenção de empreender, outros analisam a própria intenção de empreender. No entanto, as análises indicam que a ideia central defendida está na predisposição individual para empreender. A despeito da diversidade de estudos que analisaram a influência de fatores do contexto em que os indivíduos estão inseridos, como relacionados com a propensão ao empreendedorismo, ressalta-se que o presente estudo se centra na identificação das características no nível individual. Por meio da análise de conteúdo são selecionadas as características individuais mais recorrentes que foram analisadas nestes estudos para identificar futuros empreendedores, nos seguintes quesitos: com relação positiva: comportamento inovador, necessidade de autonomia, necessidade de realização, proatividade, lócus de controle interno, tolerância à ambiguidade, propensão ao risco e autoeficácia e, com relação negativa: lócus de controle externo, intolerância à ambiguidade e aversão ao risco. Este estudo contribui para a teoria ao apresentar um conjunto de características individuais mais relevantes para a identificação de futuros empreendedores. Fornece também, para estudos posteriores, elementos para o desenvolvimento de uma escala para mensuração da propensão ao empreendedorismo e seus antecedentes e, ainda, possibilita o desenvolvimento e validação de um modelo teórico das relações entre as características individuais e a propensão ao empreendedorismo.


Palavras-chave


Entrepreneurship Propensity, Individual Characteristics, Future Entrepreneurs

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Referências


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