Acute Toxicity of Cigarette Butts Leachate on Nauplii of Artemia sp. / Toxicidade aguda do lixiviado de bitucas de cigarro sobre Náuplios de Artemia sp.

Denis Moledo de Souza Abessa, Andressa dos Santos Barbosa Ortega, Gabriela Pustiglione Marinsek, Larissa Yoshida Roselli, Luiza De David Chelotti, Fernando Cesar Perina

Resumo


Cigarette butts (CBs) are composed by synthetic polymers and products from the combustion of tobacco. They are improperly discarded in large quantities in the environment, representing a major litter type impacting the coastal ecosystems. CBs contain a large number of hazardous chemical substances and represent potential threats to marine organisms. This investigation assessed the acute toxicity of CBs leachates on the microcrustacean Artemia sp., considering lethal effects and morphometric analysis. A leachate solution was obtained by the addition of 5 smoked CBs in 500 ml filtered seawater, and agitation for 3 days. Nauplii of Artemia sp. were obtained from cists and exposed to different concentrations of the leachate (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 %). After 48 h, the mortalities were recorded and the survivors were analyzed for their size and presence of morphological deformities. The results showed significant differences from the concentration of 50 % (LOEC) and the lethal concentration to 50% organisms (LC50-48h) was 45.3 (39.3-52.1) %. No differences were observed regarding the body size, but morphological deformities were more frequent in the organisms exposed to the highest concentrations. The presence of CBs in the environment may threaten the marine species, because the leachate is toxic.


Palavras-chave


Microcrustacean, mortality, cigarette butts, marine pollution, marine litter.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


ARAÚJO, M.C..B. & COSTA, M.F. 2019. A critical review of the issue of cigarette butt in coastal environments. Environmental Research, 172: 137-149.

ABNT NBR 16530. 2016. Ecotoxicologia aquática - Toxicidade aguda - Método de ensaio com Artemia sp. (Crustacea, Brachiopoda). ABNT, Rio de Janeiro.

BARNES, R.L. 2011. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste. Tobacco Control, 20(Suppl. 1): i45-i48.

BASTOS, F.I.P.M., VASCONCELLOS, M.T.L., DE BONI, R.B., REIS, N.B. & COUTINHO, C.F.S. 2017. III Levantamento Nacional sobre o uso de drogas pela população brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: FIOCRUZ/ICICT, 528p.

BOOTH, D.J.; GRIBBEN, P. & PARKINSON, K. 2015 Impact of CB leachate on tidepool snails. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 95: 362–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.04.004

BRASIL. 1995. Ministério da Saúde. Portaria Interministerial nº 477 de 24 de março de 1995. Brasília: Diário Oficial da União.

CIGARETTE LITTER ORGANISATION. 2001. The awful truth about cigarette litter. http://www.cigarettelitter.org/ (Accessed on December 29, 2020)

CLEANUP AUSTRALIA. 2002. Rubbish report: A snapshot. Cleanup Australia, Sydney, Australia. http://www.cleanup.org.au/ (Accessed on December 29, 2020)

CURTIS, C., NOVOTNY, T.E., LEE, K., FREIBERG, M. & MCLAUGHLIN, I. 2017. Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act. Tobacco Control, 26: 113–117. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052737

DANE, A.J.; CRYSTAL, D.H.; KENT, J.V. 2006. The detection of nitro pesticides in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke using electron monochromator-mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 78: 3227-3233.

DI GIACOMO, S., MAZZANTI, G., DI SOTTO, A. 2015.Mutagenicity of CB waste in the bacterial reverse mutation assay: the protective effects of b-caryophyllene and b-caryophyllene oxide. Environmental Toxicology, 1319–1329. https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.22136

EBADIFAR, A., HAMEDI, R., KHORRAMKHORSHID, H.R., KAMALI, K. & MOGHADAM, F.A. 2016. Parental cigarette smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha gene variant and the risk of orofacial cleft in Iranian infants. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 19(4): 366-373. https://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2016.6807

EKONOMOU, G., LOLAS, A., CASTRITSI-CATHARIOS, J., NEOFITOU, C., D ZOUGANELIS, G., TSIROPOULOS, N. & EXADACTYLOS, A. 2019. Mortality and effect on growth of Artemia franciscana exposed to two common organic pollutants. Water, 11(8): 1614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/w11081614

GRANADOS, P.S.; FULTON, L.; PATLAN, E.N.; TERZIK, M. & NOVOTNY, T.E. 2019. Global health perspectives on cigarette butts and the environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(10): 1858. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101858

HACKSHAW, A., RODECK, C. & BONIFACE, S. 2011. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and birth defects: a systematic review based on 173 687 malformed cases and 11.7 million controls. Human Reproduction Update, 17(5): 589–604. https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmr022

KUČIENĖ, R. & DULSKIENĖ, V. 2010. Parental cigarette smoking and the risk of congenital heart septal defects. Medicina (Kaunas), 46(9): 635-41. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina46090090

KURMUS, H. & MOHAJERANI, A. 2020. Leachate analysis of heavy metals in cigarette butts and bricks incorporated with cigarette butts. Materials (Basel), 13(12): 2843 https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122843

LAWAL, M.S. & OLOGUNDUDU, S. 2013. Toxicity of cigarette filter leachates on Hymenochirus curtipes and Clarias gariepinus in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Extension, 11: 7-14.

LEE, W. & LEE, C.C. 2015. Developmental toxicity of cigarette butts–An underdeveloped issue. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 113: 362-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.12.018

LEITE JÚNIOR, M.C.R.; REIS, P.V.G.; RANGEL, R.R.; LAUDINO, M.F.; ROCHA, H.S.; TEIXEIRA, D.L.; FACETO, A.D. & EVARISTO, A.B. 2020. Análise da qualidade da água dos Rios Verde e do peixeno Distrito Industrial do Município de Três Corações, Minas Gerais. Brazilian Journal of Animal and Environmental Research, 3(3):1339-1348. DOI: 10.34188/bjaerv3n3-051

MICEVSKA, T.; WARNE, M.S.J.; PABLO, F. & PATRA, R. 2006. Variation in, and causes of, toxicity of cigarette butts to a cladoceran and microtox. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 50: 205–212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-004-0132-y

MOERMAN, J.W. & POTTS, G.E. 2011. Analysis of metals leached from smoked cigarette litter. Tobacco Control, 20 (Suppl. 1): i30–i35.

MORIWAKI, H., KITAJIMA, S. & KATAHIRA, K. 2009. Waste on the roadside, ‘poi-sute’ waste: its distribution and elution potential of pollutants into environment. Waste Management, 29: 1192–1197. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2008.08.017

NOVOTNY, T.E. & ZHAO, F. 1999. Consumption and production waste: another externality of tobacco use. Tobacco Control, 8: 75–80.

OCEAN CONSERVANCY. 2016. International Coastal Cleanup. https://oceanconservancy.org/trash-free-seas/international-coastal-cleanup/. (Accessed on December 29, 2020)

PRESTES, R.M. & VINCENCI, K.L. 2019. Bioindicadores como avaliação de impacto ambiental. Brazilian Journal of Animal and Environmental Research, 2(4): 1473-1493. DOI: 10.34188/bjaerv3n3-051

PULS, J.; WILSON, S.A.; HOLTER, D. 2011. Degradation of cellulose acetate-based materials: a review. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 19: 152–165. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-010-0258-0.

RAWLS, S.M.; PATIL, T.; TALLARIDA, C.S.; BARON, S.; KIM, M., SONG, K.; WARD, S.; RAFFA, R.B. 2011. Nicotine behavioral pharmacology: clues from planarians. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 118(2–3): 274–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.04.001

REGISTER, K. 2000. Cigarette butts as litter—toxic as well as ugly? Bulletin of American Littoral Society, 25: 23–29.

SANTOS, C.E., KIST, B.B., FILTER, C.F., CARVALHO, C., TREICHEL, M. 2017. Anuário Brasileiro do Tabaco. Editora Gazeta Santa Cruz. 128p. ISSN 1808-7485.

SAVINO, J.F.; TANABE, L.L. 1989. Sublethal effects of phenanthrene, nicotine,and pinane on Daphnia pulex. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 42: 778–784.

SLAUGHTER, E., GERSBERG, R.M., WATANABE, K., RUDOLPH, J., STRANSKY, C. & NOVOTNY, T.E. 2011. Toxicity of cigarette butts, and their chemical components, to marine and freshwater fish. Tobacco Control, 20 (Suppl 1): i25-i29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tc.2010.040170

USDHHS, 2010. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center.

WHO. 2017. Tobacco and its environmental impact: an overview. World Health Organization. 72pp.

WHO. 2018. Global report on trends in prevalence of tobacco smoking 2000-2025 - Second edition. Geneva: World Health Organization. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. 121pp.

WRIGHT, S.L., ROWE, D., REID, M.J., THOMAS, K.V. & GALLOWAY, T.S. 2015. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms. Scientific Reports, 5: 14119. https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep14119

ZAR, J.H. 1999. Biostatistical Analysis. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.34188/bjaerv4n1-055

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.